🔬5. Lurking behind interpolation in Perl 6

In the previous articles, we’ve seen that the undefined value cannot be easily interpolated in a string, as an exception occurs. Today, our goal is to see where exactly that happens in the source code of Rakudo.

So, as soon as we’ve looked at the Boolean values, let’s continue with them. Open perl6 in the REPL mode and create a variable:

$ perl6
To exit type 'exit' or '^D'
> my $b

The variable is undefined, so be ready to get an exception when interpolating it:

> "$b"
Use of uninitialized value $b of type Any in string context.
Methods .^name, .perl, .gist, or .say can be used to stringify it to something meaningful.
 in block  at  line 1

Interpolation uses the Str method. For undefined values, this method is absent in the Bool class. So we have to trace back to the Mu class, where we can see the following collection of base methods:

proto method Str(|) {*}

multi method Str(Mu:U \v:) {
   my $name = (defined($*VAR_NAME) ?? $*VAR_NAME !! try v.VAR.?name) // '';
   $name ~= ' ' if $name ne '';
   warn "Use of uninitialized value {$name}of type {self.^name} in string"
      ~ " context.\nMethods .^name, .perl, .gist, or .say can be"
      ~ " used to stringify it to something meaningful.";

multi method Str(Mu:D:) {
        self.^name ~ '<' ~ nqp::tostr_I(nqp::objectid(self)) ~ '>'

The proto-definition gives the pattern for the Str methods. The vertical bar in the signature indicates that the proto does not validate the type of the argument and can also capture more arguments.

In the Str(Mu:U) method you can easily see the text of the error message. This method is called for the undefined variable. In our case, with the Boolean variable, there’s no Str(Bool:U) method in the Bool class, so the call is dispatched to the method of the Mu class.

Notice how the variable name is obtained:

my $name = (defined($*VAR_NAME) ?? $*VAR_NAME !! try v.VAR.?name) // '';

It tries either the dynamic variable $*VAR_NAME or the name method of the VAR object.

You can easily see which branch is used: just add a couple of printing instructions to the Mu class and recompile Rakudo:

proto method Str(|) {*}
multi method Str(Mu:U \v:) {
    warn "VAR_NAME=$*VAR_NAME" if defined $*VAR_NAME;
    warn "v.VAR.name=" ~ v.VAR.name if v.VAR.?name;
    . . .

Now execute the same interpolation:

> my $b ;
> "$b"
  in block  at  line 1

So, the name was taken from the $*VAR_NAME variable.

What about the second multi-method Str(Mu:D:)? It is important to understand that it will not be called for a defined Boolean object because the Bool class has a proper variant already.

🔬3. Playing with the code of Rakudo Perl 6

Yesterday, we looked at the two methods of the Bool class that return strings. The string representation that the functions produce is hardcoded in the source code.

Let’s use this observation and try changing the texts.

So, here is the fragment that we will modify:

Bool.^add_multi_method('gist', my multi method gist(Bool:D:) {
    self ?? 'True' !! 'False'

This gist method is used to stringify a defined variable.

To make things happen, you need to have the source codes of Rakudo on your computer so that you can compile them. Clone the project from GitHub first:

$ git clone https://github.com/rakudo/rakudo.git

Compile with MoarVM:

$ cd rakudo
$ perl Configure.pl --gen-moar --gen-nqp --backends=moar
$ make

Having that done, you get the perl6 executable in the rakudo directory.

Now, open the src/core/Bool.pm file and change the strings of the gist method to use the Unicode thumbs instead of plain text:

Bool.^add_multi_method('gist', my multi method gist(Bool:D:) {
    self ?? '👍' !! '👎'

After saving the file, you need to recompile Rakudo. Bool.pm is in the list of files to be compiled in Makefile:

    . . .
    . . .

Run make and get the updated perl6. Run it and enjoy the result:

:~/rakudo$ ./perl6
To exit type 'exit' or '^D'
> my Bool $b = True;
> $b = !$b; 

As an exercise, let us improve your local Perl 6 by adding the gist method for undefined values. By default, it does not exist, and we saw that yesterday. It means that an attempt to interpolate an undefined variable in a string will be rejected. Let’s make it better.

Interpolation uses the Str method. It is similar to both gist and perl, so you will have no difficulties in creating the new version.

This is what currently is in Perl 6:

Bool.^add_multi_method('Str', my multi method Str(Bool:D:) {
    self ?? 'True' !! 'False'

This is what you need to add:

Bool.^add_multi_method('Str', my multi method Str(Bool:U:) {

Notice that self is not needed (and cannot be used) in the second variant.

Compile and run perl6:

$ ./perl6
To exit type 'exit' or '^D'
> my Bool $b;
> "Here is my variable: $b"
Here is my variable: ¯\_(ツ)_/¯

It works as expected. Congratulations, you’ve just changed the behaviour of Perl 6 yourself!