17. Parameterised roles in Perl 6

Today, a small excursus into the syntax. Did you know that roles in Perl 6 can have a parameter that makes them similar to generic templates in, say, C++? Here’s a small example:

role R {
    has $.value;
    method add($b) {
        $.value + $b.value

    method div($b) {
        $.value / $b.value

The R role defines an interface that has a value and two methods for arithmetical operations: add and div.

Now, create a class using the role, initialise two variables and use the methods to get the results:

class C does R {}

my C $x = C.new(value => 10);
my C $y = C.new(value => 3);

say $x.add($y); # 13
say $x.div($y); # 3.333333

Although the values here were integers, Perl did a good job and returned a rational number for the division. You can easily see it by calling the WHAT method:

say $x.add($y).WHAT; # (Int)
say $x.div($y).WHAT; # (Rat)

If you have two integers, the result of their division is always of the Rat type. The actual operator, which is triggered in this case, is the one from src/core/Rat.pm:

multi sub infix:</>(Int \a, Int \b) {
    DIVIDE_NUMBERS a, b, a, b

The DIVIDE_NUMBERS sub returns a Rat value.

Defining a role

How to modify the C class so that it performs integer division? One of the options is to use a parameterised role:

role R[::T] {
    has T $.value;
    method add($b) {
        T.new($.value + $b.value)

    method div($b) {   
        T.new($.value / $b.value)

The parameter in square brackets after the role name restricts both the type of the $.value attribute and the return type of the methods, which return a new object of the type T. Here, in the template of the role, T is just a name, which should later be specified when the role is used.

Using the role

So, let’s make it integer:

class N does R[Int] {}

Now the parts of the role that employ the T name replace it with Int, so the class is equivalent to the following definition:

class C {
    has Int $.value;
    method add($b) {
        Int.new($.value + $b.value)

    method div($b) {   
        Int.new($.value / $b.value)

The new class operates with integers, and the result of the division is an exact 3:

class N does R[Int] {}

my N $i = N.new(value => 10);
my N $j = N.new(value => 3);

say $i.add($j); # 13
say $i.div($j); # 3

It is also possible to force floating-point values by instructing the role accordingly:

class F does R[Num] {}

my F $x = F.new(value => 10e0);
my F $y = F.new(value => 3e0);

say $x.add($y); # 13
say $x.div($y); # 3.33333333333333

Notice that both values, including 13, are of the Num type now, not Int or Rat as it was before:

say $x.add($y).WHAT; # (Num)
say $x.div($y).WHAT; # (Num)

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